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استفاده از موّاد آموزشی اصیل برای پیشرفت درک مطلب شنیداری در کلاس های انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی

چکیده

 

هدف اصلی تحقیق حاضر بررّسی تأثیر موّاد آموزشی اصیل بر توانایی شنیداری سی نفر از دانشجویان دوره کارشناسی روانشناسی در کلاس مطالعه انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی بوده است. هدف دوّم به مشّخص کردن استراتژی های یادگیری که این دانشجویان استفاده کرده اند و تعیین تأثیر موّاد آموزشی اصیل بر نگرش آنان نسبت به یادگیری زبان انگلیسی اختصاص یافته است.

تجزیه و تحلیل کمّی و کیفی در تحقیق حاضر ارائه شده است. این تحقیق به استفاده از موّاد آموزشی اصیل و موقعّیتهای زندگی حقیقی به عنوان بخشی از روش ارتباطی معطوف شده است. منابع طرّاحی و تحقق آموزش استراتژی موثر شنیداری و رونوشت نوار ویدیویی یک جلسه یک ساعته ثبت و ضبط و مطالعه آماری شد. نتایج آزمون نهایی درک مطلب شنیداری با آزمون اوّلیه با استفاده از آزمون t-test   دو جانبه (2-tailed)  مورد بررّسی و مطالعه آماری قرار گرفت. میانگین استفاده استراتژی با استفاده از آزمون ANOVA  یک جانبه (one-way)  بررّسی و مطالعه آماری شد. نتایج بررّسی داده های کیفی تأیید کننده و هماهنگ با نتایج کمّی بود. تجزیه و تحلیل مصاحبه ها و پرسش نامه ها نشان داد که استفاده از موّاد اموزشی اصیل در کلاس انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی به افزایش میزان آرامش و اعتماد به نفس آنان در شنیدن زبان خارجی کمک کرده است. نتایج پیشرفت معنی داری (P < .05)  در توانایی شنیداری و تأثیر مثبت بر انگیزش دانشجویان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی برای یارگیری زبان را نشان داد. توصیه هایی برای کمک به غلبه بر دلسردی ناشی از سرعت صحبت گوینده موّاد آموزشی اصیل ارائه شده است. کاربردهای آموزشی این نتایج به همراه تأثیر آنها بر پربارتر شدن درک مطلب شنیداری دانشجویان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی بررّسی و ارائه گردیده است.

 

Table of Contents

 

 

Acknowledgement                                                                                           X

 

Abstract                                                                                                           XI

 

List of Tables                                                                                                              XII

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction                                                       1

 

 

  • Overview 1
  • Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study 5
  • Significance and Justification of the Study 6
  • Research Questions 7
  • Research Hypotheses 8
  • What Is Known About Listening 8
  • What Is Known About Authentic Materials 10
  • Definition of Important Terms 12
  • Delimitations 13
  • Limitations 14
  • Organization of the Master Thesis 14

Chapter 2: Review of Literature                                                         15

 

  • Introduction 15
  • Listening Comprehension 15

2.2.1     Definition of Listening                                                                          15

2.2.2     Importance of Listening                                                                               17

2.2.2.1     Listening and Academic Success   18

2.2.2.2     Discovery Listening 18

2.2.3     Listening as an Academic Process   20

2.2.3.1     Knowledge Required for Listening 20

Process

  • Listening Comprehension versus Reading 21

Comprehension

  • Listening Comprehension 23

2.2.5.1     Authentic and Listening                                                            23

Comprehension

  • Different Kinds of Comprehension 24
  • Comprehension Preceding Production 25

2.2.6     Tasks for Listening Comprehension                                                                         25

2.2.6.1     Performing to Indicate Understanding                                                                                27

2.2.6.2     Teaching rather than Testing    28

2.2.7     Inner Speech and Language Learning 29

2.2.7.1     Listening and Speaking 29

2.2.8     Maturation and Language Learning 30

2.2.8.1     Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal                31

Development

  • The Role of Background Knowledge in 32

Learning Language

2.2.9.1     Schema Theory                                                               32

2.2.9.2     Background Knowledge/Prior                                                33

Knowledge

2.2.10    Cultural Background                                                                              35

2.3      Listening and English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learning 36

2.3.1      The Emergency of Communicative Language 36

Teaching

  • Communicative Approach: Some Principles 38

and Features

2.4      The Use of Aural Authentic Materials 40

2.4.1      Definitions of Authentic Materials 40

2.4.2      Authentic Materials and Language Performance                                                                             41

2.4.3      Nature of Authentic Texts       43

2.4.3.1     Characteristics of Authentic Speech    43

2.4.3.2     Authentic Speech and Cultural Aspect     44

 

 

 

Chapter 3: Methodology                                                    46

 

 

  • Introduction 46
  • Summary of the Study 46

3.2.1     Participants                                                                     48

3.2.2     Classroom Observation                                                                          49

3.3     Demographic Data of the Students  50

3.4     Classroom Environment                                                                             52

3.4.1     Setting    52

3.5     Classroom Practices 52

3.5.1     Listening Materials Implemented in Class       52

3.5.2     Class Procedure 53

3.6     Teacher’s Pedagogy 54

3.7     Interviews 55

3.7.1     Interviews with Students  56

3.7.1.1     First Interview 56

3.7.1.2     Second Interview 56

3.8     Self-Evaluation Questionnaire                                                                           57

3.9     Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire                                                                                 58

3.10   Data Collection 59

3.11   Analysis of Data        60

3.12   Validity and Reliability 63

Chapter 4: Results 64

 

  • Introduction 64
  • Summary of the Study 64
  • Results of the Study 65

4.3.1     Results for Fundamental Research Question:                                                                        66

Influences of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.1.1     Results from the Interviews with Students      67

4.3.1.2     Results from the Class Observation                                                                     69

4.3.1.3     Results from the Self-Evaluation                                                                       71

Questionnaire

4.3.2     Summary of Findings Related to the Influences                                                                       72

of Aural Authentic Materials

4.3.3     Results for Secondary Research Question#1:                                                                     73

Learning Strategy Use

4.3.3.1     Results from the Interview with 73

students

  • Results from the Class Observation 75
  • Results from the Learning Strategy 76

Questionnaire

4.3.4     Summary of Findings Related to the Learning        77

Strategy Use

 

4.3.5     Results for Secondary Research Question#2:                                                                       79

Attitudes towards Language Learning

4.3.5.1     Results from the Interviews with                                                                                79

Students

  • Summary of Findings Related to the Students’                                                              80

Attitudes towards Language Learning

4.4   Overall Findings of the Study      80

4.4.1    Students with no Progress in Listening Ability    81

4.4.2    Students with Progress in Listening Ability    82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5: Conclusion                                                       84

 

  • Introduction 84
  • Summary of the study 84
  • Discussion of Results 86

5.3.1     Authenticity of the Listening Materials                                                                         86

5.3.2     Influences of Aural Authentic Materials on  89

Listening Comprehension

  • Use of Learning Strategies 92
  • Attitudes towards Language Learning 94

5.4     Conclusions                                                                              96

5.5     Recommendations                                                                  102

5.5.1     Recommendations for Further Research 102

5.5.2     Implications for Teaching 103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography                                                               105

 

Appendices                                                                 123

 

Appendix A   124

 

Appendix B   125

 

Appendix C   129

 

Appendix D   131

 

Appendix E   137

 

Appendix F   145

 

Appendix G   147

 

Appendix H   148

 

Appendix I    149

 

Appendix J    150

Appendix K   151

 

Appendix L   157

 

Acknowledgements

 

 

It is the highest time I seized the opportunity to offer my most genuine and profound words of gratitude to many people to whom I owe the accomplishment of this research. Among many people who have bestowed, most kindly, their invaluable help upon me I should specifically thank my honorable thesis advisor, Dr.Karkia, who patiently went through every line of this thesis and provided me with many insightful comments and invaluable suggestions. I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Ghahremani Ghajar, my thesis reader, for her most professional guidelines, meticulous reading of this manuscript, making insightful suggestions and corrections; for her expertise and time. I am also very much grateful to Dr. Rahimi for her critical evaluation, and judgment of this thesis.

Also my thanks and best wishes go to all students who participated in the present study, without whose cooperation this research would not have been conducted.

Last, by no means least, a truly cordial sense of thankfulness to my parents General Ali Ghaderpanahi and Firooze Nobariyan for their support and everlasting encouragement throughout my educational years.

 

ABSTRACT

 

The fundamental purpose of this study was to examine the influences of aural authentic materials on listening ability of thirty female undergraduate psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. The secondary purposes of the study were to identify the learning strategies used by EFL students experiencing authentic listening texts and to determine the influences of authentic materials on EFL students’ attitudes towards learning English.

A quantitative and qualitative analysis was offered in this study. It basically focused on using authentic materials and real-life situations as part of the communicative approach. Sources for designing and implementing effective listening strategy instruction and the transcript of one-hour videotaped session were recorded and analyzed. The results of the listening comprehension posttest were compared to that of the pretest using a 2-tailed t-test (p < .05). A one-way ANOVA on the mean strategy use was applied      (p < .05).The results of the qualitative data analysis were in line with and confirmed that of quantitative. Analysis of the interviews and the questionnaires revealed that the use of authentic materials in the EFL classroom helped increase students’ comfort level and their self-confidence to listen to the foreign language. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in listening ability, as well as the positive effect on EFL students’ motivation to learn the language. Recommendations were offered to ease students’ frustration that resulted from the speed of authentic speech. Pedagogical implications of the results were discussed along with the impact on EFL students’ listening comprehension development.  

List of Tables

 

Table 1: Source of Data                                                                                          48

 

Table 2: Demographic data of Strategy                                                                                    51

 

Table 3: Analysis of Data                                                                                          62

 

Table 4: Interview Results                                                                                     68

 

Table 5: Results from Class Observation                                                                              70

 

Table 6: Students’ Responses on Self-Evaluation Questionnaire                                                                           71

 

Table 7: Interviews with Students on Learning Strategy Use                                                                                           74

 

Table 18: Class Observation on Learning Strategy Use                                                                                           75

 

Table 9: Responses to Questionnaire on Learning Strategy Use                                                                                           78

 

 

 

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